Overview of Implant Placement
- What Are Dental Implants?
- The Surgical Procedure
- The Healing Phase
- When Are Dental Implants Placed?
- How Many Implants Do I Need?
What Are Dental Implants?
A natural tooth consists of a root and a crown. If you compare natural teeth to implant-supported replacement teeth, you’ll see they have the same basic parts. Both have a crown (the visible part used to chew food). Both have a root that supports the crown and anchors it into the jaw. The difference is that the implant is made of titanium – the same time-tested material used by surgeons for artificial joints. When you lose a tooth, you lose both the root and the crown. To replace the tooth, the surgeon first replaces the root with a dental implant.
Time is allowed for bone to heal and grow around the dental implant. The bone bonds with the titanium, creating a strong foundation for artificial teeth. A support post (abutment) is then placed on the implant and a new replacement tooth (crown) is secured on top of the abutment. In many cases a temporary replacement tooth can be attached to the implant immediately after it is placed. If all of your teeth are missing, a variety of treatment options are available to support the replacement teeth.
The Surgical Procedure
The procedure to place a single implant takes 30 to 60 minutes and 2 to 3 hours for multiple implants. The time required and number of appointments vary from patient to patient. The surgeon will bring great precision and attention to the details of your case.
At your appointment you will receive pre-operative instructions and you will likely be given a prescription for antibiotics. Prior to surgery, you may receive antibiotics and for greater comfort, intravenous sedation.
When you are comfortable and adequately sedated, local anesthesia will be administered to numb the area. The surgeon makes a small incision in the gum tissue, prepares a space in the bone using special instruments and gently inserts the titanium implant. The top of this implant is often visible through the gum. Sometimes it is better in the early stages of healing to have the implant covered by the gum tissue.
2. Tooth Loss
3. Healed Bone
4. Implant Placed
6. Implant Restored
The Healing Phase
Now the healing begins. The length of time varies from person to person, depending upon the quality and quantity of bone. In some cases, implants may be restored immediately after they are placed. The surgeon will advise you on follow-up care and timing. After the initial phase of healing, the surgeon places an abutment (support post) or a healing cap onto the implant during a brief follow-up visit. This allows gum tissue to mature and provides access to the implant.
How long your mouth needs to heal is determined by a variety of factors. Follow-up care (one to four appointments) is usually needed to ensure that your mouth is healing well and to determine when you are ready for the restorative phase of your treatment.
A soft tissue graft may be beneficial to obtain more natural esthetics and improved cleansability of the gum around the implant. This process involves transferring a small amount of gum tissue from one part of your mouth to the area around the implant. Most often, it is a brief and relatively comfortable in-office procedure.
Whether it’s one tooth or all of your teeth that are being replaced, your dentist will complete the restoration by fitting the replacement tooth (crown) to the dental implant.
When Are Dental Implants Placed?
Implants are often placed several months after extraction. At times, an implant may be placed immediately after extraction of a tooth. This may involve a little more risk, but it simplifies the process—you won’t have to wait for another appointment to place the implant. When significant infection or other factors limit the amount of stable bone, delayed implant placement may be a better option.
If your tooth has been missing for some time, the adjacent support bone is likely to grow thinner and shrink. This occurs because the root of the natural tooth is no longer present to stimulate and maintain the bone. As much as one third of your jaw’s thickness can be lost in the year following tooth extraction. If you are missing significant bone, you may benefit from having additional bone grafted into the area. This ensures the implant will be adequately supported when it is placed in the jaw.
How Many Implants Do I Need?
Most frequently, one implant per missing tooth is placed. Because many of the larger teeth in the back of your jaws have two or three roots, the most common approach is to replace missing back teeth with larger implants.